Fair Housing Quiz 2023

 Debbi Conrad, WRA Senior Attorney and Director of Legal Affairs  |    March 01, 2023

1. Implicit bias is looking at people and tying in stereotypes and attitudes toward them or about them without even acknowledging we are doing so. How does implicit bias affect real estate professionals?

A. Our conscious minds always override our unconscious brains and the unconscious bias and stereotypes hidden therein, so it is not a concern when agents focus on selling property. 
B. It describes what happens when, despite their best intentions and without their awareness, racial stereotypes and assumptions creep into the minds of real estate professionals and cause them to make assumptions and steer buyers. 
C. Real estate professionals know they must treat people fairly, according to buyers’ property preference criteria, and they always avoid biases. 
D. Agents act unprofessionally if they have not watched the video “Bias Override: Overcoming Barriers to Fair Housing,” at www.nar.realtor/videos/bias-override-overcoming-barriers-to-fair-housing.  

2. About 13.2% of the current population speaks Spanish rather than English at home, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals (NAHREP) found that 18.1% of new homeowners were Latino or Hispanic in 2021. What tools are available to assist agents working with Latino homebuyers?

A. The Spanish translations of the WRA’s Explanation of Residential Listing Contract, Explanation of Residential Offer to Purchase, and Explanation of Buyer Agency/Tenant Representation can be accessed at www.wra.org/ConsumerBrochures to use with clients and customers.
B. Resources for interpreters and translators may be found at www.wra.org/CulturalDiversity
C. The National Association of REALTORS® NAR en Español website at www.nar.realtor/nar-en-espanol
D.  All of the above. 

3. The 5-4 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in Obergefell v. Hodges reached what fundamental conclusion?

A. The 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution requires a state to license a marriage between two people of the same sex and to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex that was lawfully licensed and performed in another state.
B. The Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment guarantees the right to marry as one of the fundamental liberties it protects, and that analysis applies to same-sex couples in the same manner as it does to opposite-sex couples. 
C. The First Amendment protects the rights of religious organizations to adhere to their principles, but it does not allow states to deny same-sex couples the right to marry on the same terms as those for opposite-sex couples.
D. All of the above.

4. A real estate professional suggests an African-American couple focus their search on a neighborhood that is predominantly African American and discourages them from looking at a nearby neighborhood that they expressed interest in and that is predominantly white. Which of the following describes this scenario?

A. The agent is violating fair housing law by steering the buyers toward or away from neighborhoods based upon perceived protected characteristics, such as race.
B. The agent is doing his job, using his expertise and applying his best judgment to do what is beneficial for the parties and the real estate agents. 
C. This is legal steering done to fulfill what the agent assumes the buyers really want and can afford.
D. This practice will help maintain the respective property values in each neighborhood.

5. Which of the following is not true when a residential tenant asks the landlord to change the locks to the tenant’s premises based on the Safe Housing Act?

A. The request must be accompanied by a certified copy of a domestic abuse injunction, harassment injunction, criminal complaint alleging sexual assault or stalking, or similar order as stated in Wis. Stat § 704.16. 
B. A landlord shall have the locks changed, or give the tenant permission to change the locks, within 48 hours after receipt of the tenant’s request and a certified copy of one of the documents listed in the statute.
C. The person threatening the tenant shall be responsible for the cost of changing the locks. 
D. If the landlord gives the tenant permission to change the locks, within a reasonable time after any lock has been changed, the tenant shall provide the landlord with a key for the changed lock.

6. What is the purpose of the WRA’s Partnership for Success Program?

A. To promote diversity within the REALTOR® membership based on race, color and national origin.
B. To invite members to enter into multiple partnerships for brokerage practice. 
C. To increase minority representation in real estate brokerages and REALTOR® organizations. 
D. Both A and C.

7. A buyer with a disability wants to rent an apartment and is requesting a ramp on the outside of the building. Must the landlord allow this?

A. Yes, both federal law and Wis. Stat. § 106.50(2r) prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities and enable a person with disabilities to make reasonable modifications to a property that the person occupies if the modifications are necessary for the person with disabilities to have full enjoyment of the housing.
B. Yes, the landlord should allow the reasonable modifications at the tenant’s expense and also may require a restoration agreement with the tenant paying into an escrow account under Wis. Stat. § 106.50(2r)(b)3, but may not increase any customary security deposit. 
C. No, the landlord need not allow changes to the exterior of buildings on the property.
D. Yes, both A and B.

8. Redlining is a discriminatory practice that puts services such as home mortgage loans out of reach for buyers in certain areas based on race or ethnicity. Which of the following is not true?

A. The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) created color-coded maps: green areas were considered the safest with no Blacks or other foreigners; red areas were considered the riskiest with neighborhoods with Black residents. These redlining maps and accompanying racially restrictive covenants systematically prevented Black families from obtaining mortgage loans and buying homes in affordable suburbs and city neighborhoods. 
B. If a Black service member or veteran wanted to buy a home in the mid-1900s, they could receive a no-down payment, low-interest VA loan or an FHA mortgage. 
C. George Floyd was murdered in a redlined neighborhood.
D. The FHA would refuse to insure loans in redlined neighborhoods on the premise that if Blacks bought homes in or near white neighborhoods, the value of the property owned by white property owners would fall, jeopardizing the value of the asset securing the insured loan.

9. “No persons other than the white race shall own or occupy any building on said tract, but this covenant shall not prevent occupancy of persons of a race other than the white race who are domestic servants of the owner or occupant of said buildings.” What is this statement?

A. An example of the type of covenant that the U.S. Supreme Court held in 1926 was legal because it was a private and voluntary deed restriction.
B. An example of the type of racially restrictive covenants the U.S. Supreme Court ruled were judicially unenforceable in 1948.
C. A discriminatory covenant recorded in Greendale, Wisconsin in 1958.
D.  All of the above. 

10. In the book The Color of Law, author Richard Rothstein presents the racially explicit federal, state and local government enactments and associated real estate policies that resulted in the de jure segregation in our country today; not de facto segregation resulting from private racial prejudices as many assume. What measures have contributed to de jure segregation?

A. After the Civil War, segregation was based on racial zoning until it was invalidated in 1917, but cities then tried to find ways around the racial zoning prohibition, such as with exclusionary zoning based on lot size and density. 
B. In 1924, Article 34 of the Code of Ethics stated: “A REALTOR® should never be instrumental in introducing into a neighborhood a character of property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality, or any individuals whose presence will clearly be detrimental to property values in that neighborhood.”
C. The Public Works Administration in 1930-50 developed housing projects segregated by race in neighborhoods that had previously been integrated.
D. All of the above. 

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